Different types of training allow to develop different aspects of fitness :

ENDURANCE – It increases your heart rate and breathing through the exercise of large muscle groups, performing rhythmic actions for a sustained period of time.

STRENGTH – Weightlifting and bodyweight exercises build muscle mass, developing greater performance in short duration of activities.

FLEXIBILITY – Stretching your muscles and improving range of motion is fundamental to any form of training.

BALANCE – It helps control movements and stabilize your body’s position.









Dr. Arciero’s recent studies report proven benefits of consuming moderate amounts of protein regularly throughout the day (protein-pacing) combined with a multi-dimensional exercise regimen that includes resistance exercise, interval sprint exercise, stretching and endurance exercise.

P  Protein-pacing

R  Resistance

I  Interval

S  Stretching

E  Endurance

This protocol has shown to be equally effective at improving physical fitness, as well as decreasing total, abdominal and visceral fat, increasing the proportion of lean muscle mass and significantly reducing blood glucose, insulin and cholesterol levels. It consists in consuming 20g of protein 5 times throughout the day and engaging in four different types of exercise once a week: Resistance training, Interval Sprint Exercise, Stretching and Endurance training.


Endurance running has as much to do with mental toughness as with physical training.

Creating a sense of calm in the mind to allow the body to go further. Bringing awareness to the breath, the posture, the feet and the arms while running. Releasing tension. Eliminating negative thoughts. Appreciating the sensation of running. They are the fundamentals of a zen run.

 “There are no standards and no possible victories except the joy you are living while dancing your run. You are not running for some future reward – the real reward is now!”

Fred Rohe, The Zen of Running


Different goals in weight training can be defined as:

Strength is a measurement of the ability of a muscle to exert force. Measures of strength are often associated with slow movements or no movement at all.

Power is a measurement of the ability to exert force rapidly.

Mass gain is maximized by high-volume and lower-intensity training.

In order to achieve a certain goal, it is important to be aware of the difference between Exercising and TrainingExercising is physical activity, without specific goals. The general intentions are being active, moving your body, getting fitter, getting stronger. Training is physical activity done with a longer-term goal in mind. The workouts are specifically designed to produce that goal through progression and periodization.

 Periodization is a useful tool in achieving training goals; the athlete trains very hard for a “period” of time and then trains less hard for a “period”.



The General Adaptation Syndrome (Hans Selye, 1936) explains the human response to training as follows.

The basic premise of this theory states that the body goes through a specific set of responses (short-term) and adaptations (long-term) after being exposed to an external stressor (lifting weights, in this case).

     Stage 1 – Alarm. Immediate response to the onset of stress, in which a multitude of events occur. Disruption of homeostasis occurs, through processes which enable adaptation at the cellular level. The more advanced the athlete’s level is, the greater is the level of stress needed to induce Stage 1.

     Stage 2 – Adaptation. The body responds to the training through the upregulation of gene activity, increased production of selected hormones, and accumulation of structural and metabolic prote

     Stage 3 – Exhaustion. If the stress on the body is too great, the body will be unable to adequately adapt and exhaustion will occur due to overtraining.









Homeostasisthe tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.


Upregulation: An increase in the number of receptors on the surface of target cells, making the cells more sensitive to a hormone or another agent.


Overtraining. It is the cumulative result of relentless high-intensity training without adequate recovery, that results in the exhaustion of the body’s ability to recover and adapt. It is indicated by a reduction in performance.

Fatigue and recovery together contribute towards supercompensation, considered the complete adaptation to the workload used in the training. To balance the two opposing forces of constructive human adaptation: the workload must be sufficient to disrupt biological equilibrium enough to necessitate an adaptation, and recovery must be sufficient to enable the adaptation to occur while avoiding overtraining.

Fatigue. It’s a reduction of the force-production capacity of a muscle.

Recovery. It’s affected by work/rest ratio, sleep, hydration, and intake of protein, energy, and micronutrients.









Flexibility is the range of motion of a joint and its surrounding muscles and is fundamental for any type of training.

Practicing yoga and stretching improve the body’s flexibility by lengthening the muscles, helping remove lactic acid and overall contributing to a natural and proper posture.

Dynamic stretching involves active muscular effort and is particularly useful as a warm up, to prepare the muscles before working out.

Static stretching doesn’t involve a movement of the limb itself, in fact a position is held for up to 30 seconds.

  • Static active stretching requires the strength of the opposing muscle groups to hold the limb in position for the stretch.
  • Static passive stretching uses an external force to hold the stretch in position.


Balance is intended as the body’s ability to maintain its center of gravity above its base of support. It involves eyes, ears and  muscles sensory systems.

Stability ball training or unilateral exercises activate deep core muscles, allow more coordinated and efficient movements and therefore improve training performance.

Engaged abs help prevent back injury when working out. In general, balance decreases the incidence of injuries. Improving coordination, stability and control over the body constitutes an effective balance training.












Effective breathing is just as important to your training as the exercise itself.

While weight lifting, inhale before beginning the lift, then slowly exhale through the lift through pursed lips. Contracting the respiratory muscles will help brace the load during heavier lifts while maintaining lumbar stability. Breathing during exertion is important in preventing internal injury such as hernia, blood vessel strain, and high blood pressure.

The Valsalva maneuver (VM) is a common practice in heavy weightlifting, consisting in holding your breath until you get just past your “sticking point” in a heavy lift, and then let it out. Using this technique adds stability to the spine and increases the drive from the legs to the arms, and to the bar.

While running, breathing is one of the most difficult things to control. Breathing in for a longer duration may help you breathe deeper and thus take in more oxygen. Research shows that the greatest running impact occurs when your foot strike coincides with the beginning of your exhale. So by keeping a 3:2 breath tempo, you’ll minimize your chance of injury.

Abdominal breathing  is done by contracting the diaphragm, a muscle located horizontally between the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity. Air enters the lungs and the belly expands during this type of deep breathing.

Deep breathing exercises are sometimes used as a form of relaxation that, with regular practice, may lead to the relief or prevention of symptoms commonly associated with stress, which may include high blood pressure, headaches, stomach conditions, depression, anxiety, and others. Some examples of breathing exercises are:

  • Belly breathing, for relaxation and stress relief
  • 4-7-8 breathing, for relaxation and stress relief
  • Roll breathing, to develop full use of your lungs and to focus on the rhythm of your breathing.
  • Morning breathing, to relieve muscle stiffness, back tension and clear clogged breathing passages.

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