– Prefer Higher-fibre Carbohydrates, such as Wholegrain cereals and bread, whenever possible
– There should be More Vegetables Than Fruit in your diet, for a daily total of seven portions
Milk and other Dairy foods provide Calcium, which is needed for healthy teeth and bones, and also protein, vitamins and minerals
– Eat meat, fish, eggs and plant sources of protein In Moderation
– There is evidence that red meat and processed meat increase the risk of diseases
Avoid too much sugar, fat and salt


Moderate exercise has been shown to enhance immune function whereas prolonged or intense exercise has shown immunosuppressive results.

A reason for that is that dehydration leads to an increase in the cortisol hormone levels in the blood during prolonged or intense exercise. Although there is limited evidence showing the direct effects of dehydration on immune function, dehydration has been assumed as one of the possible causes of immune dysfunction in marathon runners.

Dehydration has been found to decrease salivary occurrence. Immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), contained in saliva, is one of the first lines of defence of the immune function on foreign bacteria.

To that corresponds an increase of URTI (upper respiratory tract infection)’s incidence. Consequently maintaining appropriate hydration during exercise is fundamental.

In addition, evidence is now emerging that exercise has anti-inflammatory effects in the long term, which is one of the major health benefits of regular exercise. Individuals who practice physical training have a reduction in the levels of biomarkers that are used to assess systemic inflammation.


Energy consumed during exercise is mainly supplied by carbohydrates and lipids, so it is important for improvement of endurance to regulate the metabolism of these two substrates.

It has been suggested that supplements containing fructose, which cause less stimulation of insulin secretion and are unlikely to inhibit lipolysis, rather than common carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose, may be better for improving endurance.

In order to maximize the effect of resistance exercise, it is important to maintain the muscular pool and blood levels of various amino acids that are substrates for the synthesis of muscle proteins. For this purpose, it is necessary to maintain a positive nitrogen balance by increasing the dietary protein intake.  Also the timing of intake is important for building muscles efficiently. Eating a meal immediately after resistance exercise may contribute to a greater increase of muscle mass compared with ingesting a meal several hours later.

Consumption of carbohydrates with protein can accelerate the synthesis of muscle protein via the actions of insulin, which increases protein synthesis and impedes its catabolism.  Amino acids are utilized for the synthesis of muscle protein, and some of these molecules also wield a variety of physiological effects.

Intake of carbohydrates during prolonged exercise prevents a decrease in immunocompetence, by reducing plasma cortisol and cytokine levels after exercise. A high-carbohydrate diet that includes citric acid —contained in lemons, oranges, and limes— prevents muscle/joint injuries or fatigue, promoting a recovery of glycogen storage in muscle.


Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a mast cell (“master regulators” of the immune system) dependent reaction, which is induced by physical activity.

Conventional EIA is caused by temperature elevation induced by exercise.

Food-dependent Exercise-induced Anaphylaxis is associated to the intake of specific foods or drugs.

Foods involved in the onset of Food-dependent Exercise-induced Anaphylaxis include mostly wheat and shellfish, but also eggs, dairy, fruits and tomatoes. Aspirin’s intake increases the occurrence of allergy symptoms. Alcohol consumption can provoke a variety of hypersensitive reactions.

The clinical symptoms concern not only the skin (Urticaria) and mucosa (Angioedema) but also other organ systems like the lungs (Dyspnea), cardiovascular system (Hypotension) and gastrointestinal tract can be affected.

It appears that allergic anaphylaxis can be initiated by the onset of exercise, in patients who have low-grade allergies to specific foods. Thus exercise helps increase the absorption of food allergens in the GI tract and the degranulation of mast cells.



Gluten is the main storage protein of popular grains like wheat, rye, barley. Gluten is a complex mixture of proteins, mainly gliadin and glutenin. Gliadin is highly resistant to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, escaping degradation in the human gut.







Groups of gluten-related disorders are manifested not only by disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract, but also by dermatological, haematological, endocrinological, rheumatological, gynaecological, dental and neurological symptoms.

Gluten ataxia is a disorder of the central nervous system, that results in a lack of coordination of complex movements like walking, speaking, and swallowing.

Peripheral neuropathy is consequence of inflammation in peripheral nerve fibres, which variously impairs sensation (sensory nerves), movement (motor nerves), or gland or organ function (autonomic nerves).

Minor neurological damages appear as subtle impairments to memory, attention, decision-making, and the speed of cognitive processing collectively referred to as “brain fog”.

After the administration of a Gluten Free Diet the symptoms recede. However, when the diet is abandoned, all the symptoms recur.

Like other autoimmune diseases, celiac disease occurs in more women than men. In fact, women are diagnosed with celiac disease two to three times more often than men. Current research indicates that 60% to 70% of those diagnosed with celiac disease are women.



FODMAPs is an acronym for Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols: a collection of molecules found in food, that can be poorly absorbed by some people. This result in fermentation in the intestine that manifest as bloating, abdominal distension and so on.

Sources of these carbohydrates include:

  • Wheat
  • Beans, peas and pulses
  • Onion
  • Garlic
  • Inulin and FOS (fructooligosaccharides). These are processed food additives
  • Milk
  • Apples
  • Honey
  • Fructose
  • Peaches
  • Plums
  • Mushrooms
  • Cauliflower
  • Sugar free sweets




Low FODMAP diet is a temporary solution used to relieve digestion-related symptoms and other conditions. It consists in eliminating or reducing all sources of FODMAPs as best you can for 6 – 8 weeks and then slowly adding back high FODMAP foods one at a time to help you identify any food that triggers your symptoms.

Here is an accurate list of low and high FODMAP foods.



Histamine is a chemical that has a crucial role in our immune system. It is produced by the body and also found in certain foods.

It’s possible to experience increased sensitivity to histamine, it develops through increased availability of histamine in the body and decreased activity of the enzymes that break down histamine and remove it from our system.

Symptoms vary but include:

  • Flushing and headaches
  • Respiratory problems
  • Skin conditions
  • Gastro problems
  • Dizziness, low blood pressure and irregular heartbeat.

Fermented foods are the most histamine-rich and should be avoided.  Foods such as bread (effects of yeast), sauerkraut, fermented soya products, wine, beer, processed meat and aged cheese.


And high concentrations of histamine are also found in tea, coffee, chocolate, legumes, tomato, avocado, eggplant, spinach, olives, artificial flavours and some fruits.

Much like a low FODMAP diet, a low histamine diet requires you to follow a 2-4 week elimination period, followed by a reintroduction period to determine your histamine threshold.

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